ALEXANDER JOE/AFP:Getty Image/

津巴布韦的困境,南非的责任

约翰内斯堡——摩根·茨万吉拉伊退出原定于6月27号举行的总统决选,并决定向驻比勒陀利亚的荷兰大使馆寻求庇护,这为津巴布韦总统罗伯特·穆加贝带来了以极大代价换取的一次胜利。穆加贝的成功当选让津巴布韦及整个地区的民主与稳定付出了巨大的代价。穆加贝在茨万吉拉伊做出这一决定之前所采取的行动显示了对这次显而易见被窃取的胜利做出强烈地区反应的必要性。事实上,穆加贝继续执政是对非洲新生民主制度、以及南非实现非洲大陆和平与繁荣理想最为严峻的挑战。

茨万吉拉伊领导的争取民主变革运动(MDC)参与了2000年以后的历次选举,但这一次却被迫改变了策略。在这样一种情况下,南非和南部非洲发展共同体(SADC)不仅迫切需要重新审视它们对穆加贝的态度,而且要重新思考如何对待无竞争选举的问题。

南部非洲发展共同体和非洲联盟多年来通过的历次声明规范了非洲大陆举行的选举活动。这些声明包括《南部非洲发展共同体民主选举原则纲领》(2004)、《非洲民主、选举和治理宪章》(2007)、以及《非洲民主选举必须遵守的原则声明》(2002)。上述原则没有哪一个在津巴布韦得到了遵守,而非洲地区领袖却并没有把违反这些原则作为责难穆加贝政府的理由。

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