zika NurPhoto/Getty Images

Ketidakadilan Zika

SOUTHAMPTON – Wabah penyakit menular di negara-negara berkembang terbilang cukup buruk dari sudut pandang kesehatan. Namun hal ini juga mempunyai dampak serius terhadap keadilan sosial karena memperparah krisis hak asasi manusia yang sudah terjadi sejak lama, dan juga melemahkan penyediaan layanan kesehatan dan memperbesar kesenjangan yang ada.

Wabah Ebola pada tahun 2014 di Afrika Barat dan wabah Zika di Amerika Tengah dan Selatan pada tahun 2015 memberikan dampak paling buruk terhadap kelompok sosial yang rentan – perempuan dan anak-anak, etnis minoritas, dan kelompok miskin. Sama seperti demam kuning, demam berdarah, dan penyakit lainnya, Zika ditularkan melalui nyamuk Aedes aegypti. Namun, tidak seperti virus lainnya yang ditularkan melalui nyamuk, Zika juga bisa ditularkan melalui hubungan seksual. Bahkan yang lebih tidak lazim adalah, penyakit ini diasosiasikan dengan kondisi dan perkembangan neurologi yang terjadi pada bayi: microcephaly dan sindrom Guillain-Barré. Selain dari hal-hal tersebut, gejala dari penyakit ini cukup ringan.   

Hal ini berarti bahwa lebih dari 1.5 juta orang terkena Zika sejak wabah ini mulai terjadi, dampak yang lebih mengkhawatirkan adalah terhadap perempuan usia subur, khususnya mereka yang sudah dalam keadaan hamil. Antara tahun 2016-2017, sebanyak 11,059 kasus Zika terjadi pada perempuan hamil, sehingga menyebabkan 10, 867 kasus microcephaly dan cacat lahir lainnya pada sistem saraf pusat bayi. Lima puluh enam persen dari bayi-bayi tersebut dilahirkan oleh wanita yang miskin dan dari etnis minoritas di wilayah timur laut Brasil.

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