China busca valor

PEKÍN – A fines de septiembre se inauguró una nueva zona de libre comercio en Shanghái, que busca señalar el inicio de una nueva era, no solo de apertura para las inversiones, el comercio y las finanzas, sino de una integración china más profunda en la cadena de valor mundial. La zona promete dar impulso a una nueva ronda de reformas liberalizadoras y ayudar a la economía china a adaptarse a las demandas más recientes de la globalización.

Durante la próxima década, la competencia mundial será una competencia por la cadena global de valor. A medida que Estados Unidos y otros países avanzados busquen la «reindustrialización» y la ventaja comparativa de la economía china gracias a sus bajos salarios disminuya, China deberá restablecer su competitividad posicionándose en la cima de la cadena mundial de valor; para ello tendrá que promover el comercio y mejorar su infraestructura industrial.

Esto requiere, en primer lugar, que China construya una cadena de valor nacional y eleve su sector manufacturero, que actualmente depende de manera excesiva de la investigación y el desarrollo extranjeros, la importación de materias primas y partes semiterminadas, y de la demanda externa. La cadena de valor interna del sector es deplorablemente débil.

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