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我们的零排放未来

纽约——解决人类所引发气候变化的方案终于清晰可见。由于零碳能源技术及可持续粮食体系的迅速发展,世界可以到本世纪中叶以不增加或很少增加成本的方式实际结束温室气体排放,并为安全和健康带来决定性的福祉。惯性是主要的障碍:政治家继续支持化石燃料工业和传统农业,主要原因是他们不了解情况或者从上述集团获取利益

多数全球变暖,以及巨大的空气污染负担,均为燃烧煤、石油和天然气等化石燃料所带来的产物。环境破坏的另一个主要来源是农业,包括森林砍伐、过度使用化肥和牲畜排放甲烷。能源系统应当从污染严重的化石燃料转向风能及太阳能等清洁零碳能源,而粮食体系也应当从饲料谷物和牲畜朝着更健康也更有营养的产品过渡。类似这种能源和粮食的综合转化到本世纪中会导致温室气体净排放下降至零,而后再随着大气中的二氧化碳被森林及土壤逐步吸收而下降为负数。

截至本世纪中叶实现零净排放,再继之以负排放,很有可能确保实现将全球变暖限制在相对于地球前工业化时期1.5摄氏度以内的水平。令人担忧的是,全球变暖已经达到1.1摄氏度,而全球温度每10年均以约0.2摄氏度左右的温度上升。这解释了为什么全世界必须最晚在2050年前达到零净排放的原因。向清洁能源转型将每年防止数十万人死于空气污染,而像健康及环境可持续饮食的过渡则可以每年少死约1,000万人

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