El enigma de la defensa europea

PARIS – Si bien los ciudadanos de Europa apoyan mayoritariamente la creación de una política común en los ámbitos de la seguridad y la defensa, la mayor parte de sus gobernantes han demostrado una clara falta de interés en crearla. Esto se puede advertir en, por ejemplo, la reunión del Consejo Europeo realizada el mes pasado. ¿Cómo se entiende esta paradoja?

Una posible explicación es que los gobiernos europeos carecen de los medios para satisfacer las expectativas de sus votantes debido a las limitaciones financieras por las que están pasando. Pero no se trata de un argumento muy convincente, ya que el problema se planteaba en términos prácticamente idénticos hace tres décadas, cuando no había estrecheces de presupuesto. De hecho, se podría argüir que esas limitaciones tendrían que impulsar, más que impedir, la creación de una estructura común de defensa europea. A fin de cuentas, así los países miembros podrían hacer un uso conjunto de sus recursos, coordinar programas y racionalizar costes, reduciendo con ello las cargas financieras individuales.

Otra explicación, mucho más creíble, es que las interpretaciones de los europeos sobre lo que es “una política de seguridad más sólida y activa” difieren mucho entre sí. De hecho, en los debates que se dan hoy en Europa sobre el uso de la fuerza es posible distinguir tres perspectivas principales, representadas por Francia, el Reino Unido y Alemania.

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