Das Rätsel der europäischen Verteidigungspolitik

PARIS – Obwohl die Bürger Europas die Einführung einer gemeinsamen Sicherheits- und Verteidigungspolitik weitgehend unterstützen, legen die meisten europäischen Staats- und Regierungschefs deutlich mangelndes Interesse an der Schaffung einer solchen an den Tag - zuletzt auch bei dem Treffen des Europäischen Rates im letzten Monat. Was ist der Grund für dieses Paradoxon?

Eine mögliche Erklärung ist, dass die unter finanzieller Anspannung leidenden europäischen Staaten nicht über die Mittel verfügen, um die Erwartungen ihrer Bürger zu erfüllen. Doch diese These überzeugt nicht, angesichts der Tatsache, dass dieses Thema bereits vor drei Jahrzehnten, als Haushaltszwänge noch keine Rolle spielten, beinahe wortgleich formuliert wurde. Tatsächlich könnte man argumentieren, dass derartige Budgetzwänge die Schaffung einer europäischen Verteidigungsstruktur eher beschleunigen sollten, als sie zu hemmen. Schließlich wäre es den Mitgliedsstaaten dann möglich, ihre Ressourcen zu bündeln, Programme zu harmonisieren und Kosten zu rationalisieren, wodurch sich die finanzielle Last für einzelne Regierungen verringern würde.

Eine weitere, weitaus glaubwürdigere Erklärung ist, dass eine „aktivere und stärkere Sicherheitspolitik“ innerhalb Europas sehr unterschiedlich interpretiert wird. Tatsächlich werden die aktuellen Diskussionen in Europa hinsichtlich des Einsatzes von Militärgewalt von drei zentralen Perspektiven dominiert, deren Verfechter Frankreich, Großbritannien und Deutschland sind.

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