L’énigme de la défense européenne

PARIS – Bien que les citoyens européens soutiennent largement l’instauration d’une politique commune en matière de sécurité et de défense, la plupart des dirigeants de l’UE font preuve d’un manque d’intérêt évident quant à la création d’un tel mécanisme – comme l’a illustré la réunion du Conseil européen du mois dernier. Comment expliquer un tel paradoxe ?

Selon un premier argument, la pression financière expliquerait l’impossibilité pour les gouvernements européens de répondre aux attentes des citoyens, en raison d’un manque de moyens. Une analyse peu convaincante, dans la mesure où cette problématique fut abordée il y a trente ans dans un cadre quasi-identique, les contraintes budgétaires n’ayant à l’époque pas été considérées comme un obstacle. On peut d’ailleurs estimer que de telles contraintes seraient davantage de nature à impulser la création d’une structure de défense européenne, bien plus qu’à l’entraver. La possibilité pour les États membres d’associer leurs ressources, d’harmoniser leurs programmes, et de rationaliser les coûts ne permettrait-elle pas en effet à chacun d’atténuer la pression financière pesant sur les gouvernements.

Une autre explication, beaucoup plus crédible, réside dans les divergences considérables quant à l’interprétation des Européens autour de ce que devrait être « une politique de sécurité plus active et plus forte. » Les discussions qui se jouent actuellement en Europe concernant l’usage de la force sont en effet principalement régies par trois conceptions, emmenées par la France, les États-Unis et l’Allemagne.

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