El giro de China hacia Singapur

PEKÍN – El Partido Comunista Chino ha presentado el documento final de la Tercera Sesión Plenaria del 18.º Comité Central. En la historia del PCC, la Tercera Sesión Plenaria tradicionalmente ha constituido la ocasión para el anuncio de las principales políticas del partido para los siguientes 5 a 10 años. Este año ha sido uno de transición en el liderazgo, por lo que la Tercera Sesión Plenaria adquirió una importancia adicional. Tal como se esperaba, su documento final expone un plan de reformas integrales que reformarán la economía y la sociedad chinas durante la próxima década.

Para comenzar, el sistema de registro de viviendas (hukou) será reformado. Las pequeñas ciudades y pueblos permitirán que los migrantes se inscriban en el hukou local sin restricciones; al igual que las ciudades medianas, pero con algunas restricciones. Si bien las grandes ciudades se mantendrán tan cerradas como de costumbre, la nueva política debilitará dramáticamente las bases institucionales de la larga historia china de divisiones urbanas-rurales y regionales.

De manera similar, se modificará la política de un solo hijo que se ha hecho cumplir durante los últimos 34 años. En la mayoría de las provincias, los padres que son hijos únicos ya pueden tener dos hijos. La nueva política recomienda que las provincias permitan a las parejas tener dos hijos si alguno de los padres es hijo único. Si bien esto solo afectará aproximadamente a 10 millones de parejas –una pequeña cantidad en un país con más de 1,3 mil millones de personas– la reforma representa un gigantesco paso hacia la erradicación de esa regla.

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