En mundos opuestos

En las últimas décadas, las políticas macroeconómicas, la globalización financiera y los cambios en las instituciones del mercado de trabajo han acentuado la desigualdad, no sólo en cuanto a ingresos y riqueza, sino también en el acceso a la educación, la atención de salud, la protección social y la participación e influencia política. Incluso al interior de los países que han experimentado un rápido crecimiento económico, un conjunto de factores, agravados por los enormes cambios demográficos, ha conspirado para generar desigualdad de conocimientos, responsabilidades sociales y oportunidades de vida desde una generación a la siguiente.

Como lo expresa la Organización de Naciones Unidas en su informe The Inequality Predicament (La encrucijada de la desigualdad), pocos países, ricos o pobres, han probado ser inmunes a la tendencia global del aumento de la desigualdad, o a sus consecuencias en los ámbitos de la educación, la salud y el bienestar social.

Por supuesto, no hay una relación causal simple que vincule la pobreza y la desigualdad con la violencia. Sin embargo, la desigualdad y una sensación de falta absoluta de acceso a oportunidades sí contribuyen al resentimiento y a la inestabilidad social, amenazando la seguridad. En particular, los jóvenes -excluidos y enfrentados a sombrías perspectivas de vida- a menudo caen en la anomia y pueden recurrir a conductas antisociales, en muchos casos violentas.

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