impoverished child Thomas Trutschel | Getty Images

Di Balik Angka Kemiskinan

ASUNCIÓN – Apa yang dimaksud dengan kemiskinan? Selama bertahun-tahun kita mendefinisikannya dengan angka, salah satunya menurut ukuran Bank Dunia adalah pendapatan pribadi lebih rendah dari $1,90 per hari. Namun angka saja tidak mampu menangkap seluruh kerumitan yang ada dalam isu kemiskinan. Mengukur lebih dari sekedar pendapatan sangat penting untuk memahami kebutuhan penduduk miskin dan memberikan bantuan yang optimal.

Ketika Bank Dunia menyelenggarakan Spring Meetings di Washington, DC pekan depan, kita berpeluang menetapkan ukuran kemiskinan yang mencakup dimensi sosial dan lingkungan hidup. Bank Dunia sudah mengakui bahwa standar lain di luar pendapatan harus dipertimbangkan dan baru-baru ini membentuk Komisi Pengentasan Kemiskinan Global untuk merumuskan rekomendasi beberapa metrik tambahan.

Meskipun beberapa lembaga publik dan swasta telah mengumpulkan data tentang berbagai isu yang mempengaruhi masyarakat miskin seperti gizi, kesehatan ibu, atau akses kepada pendidikan, informasi tersebut sebagian besar belum dimanfaatkan dan jarang dibagi ke lembaga lain. Namun masih ada harapan, termasuk Indeks Kemajuan Sosial, yang menyediakan kerangka kerja untuk mempelajari beberapa gejala kemiskinan suatu negara dan melengkapi ukuran yang lama yakni berbasiskan pendapatan.

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