impoverished child Thomas Trutschel | Getty Images

Au-delà des données sur la pauvreté

ASUNCIÓN – Qu’est-ce que la pauvreté ? Pendant des décennies, nous l’avons définie par un nombre, que la Banque mondiale situe à un niveau de revenu personnel actuellement inférieur à 1,90 $ par jour. Mais un simple chiffre ne peut saisir toute la complexité de la pauvreté. Il est essentiel de mesurer d’autres paramètres que le revenu pour connaître les besoins des populations démunies et offrir une assistance optimale.

La semaine prochaine, la Banque mondiale tiendra ses réunions du printemps à Washington, DC,  ce qui nous permettra d’établir des points de repère qui englobent les dimensions sociales et environnementales de la pauvreté. La Banque mondiale a admis qu’il faudrait considérer d’autres paramètres que le revenu et a récemment créé la Commission sur la pauvreté mondiale pour recommander des mesures supplémentaires.

Même si bon nombre de groupes publics et privés colligent déjà des données sur un éventail de problèmes affectant les collectivités démunies comme l’alimentation, la santé maternelle ou l’accès à l’éducation, de telles données demeurent, en grande partie, inexploitées et sont rarement échangées entre institutions. Mais il y a certaines lueurs d’espoir, notamment l’Indice de progrès social, qui donne un cadre de référence pour effectuer le suivi de multiples symptômes de pauvreté dans plusieurs pays pour compléter les mesures traditionnelles liées au revenu.

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