Industrial tools

La evolución del trabajo

CAMBRIDGE – A mediados de diciembre, las Naciones Unidas publicarán su nuevo informe anual de desarrollo humano. El tema del de este año es la naturaleza del trabajo: de qué manera la globalización económica, las nuevas tecnologías y las innovaciones en organización social están transformando nuestro modo de ganarnos la vida. El panorama que se abre ante los países en desarrollo, en particular, es decididamente incierto.

Para la mayor parte de las personas, la mayor parte del tiempo, el trabajo es mayormente desagradable. A lo largo de la historia, los países se enriquecieron a costa de una enorme cuota de trabajo penoso. Y la riqueza da a algunas personas una oportunidad de tener trabajos mejores.

Gracias a la Revolución Industrial, nuevas tecnologías en tejido de algodón, producción de hierro y acero, y transporte crearon por primera vez en la historia un incremento sostenido de la productividad laboral. Primero en Gran Bretaña a mediados del siglo XVIII, luego en Europa Occidental y Norteamérica, hombres y mujeres se mudaron en masa desde el campo a las ciudades para satisfacer la creciente demanda de mano de obra de las fábricas.

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