Industrial tools

L’evoluzione del lavoro

CAMBRIDGE – A metà dicembre le Nazioni Unite presenteranno l’ultima edizione del     Rapporto annuale sullo sviluppo umano, che quest’anno s’incentra sulla natura del lavoro, ovvero su come il modo in cui ci guadagniamo da vivere si sta trasformando per effetto della globalizzazione economica, delle nuove tecnologie e delle innovazioni nell’ambito dell’organizzazione sociale. La prospettiva dei paesi in via di sviluppo, in particolare, si presenta decisamente contrastante.     

Per la maggior parte delle persone, il più delle volte, il lavoro è quasi sempre sgradevole. Tradizionalmente, è attraverso un carico massacrante di lavoro che alcuni paesi hanno raggiunto la ricchezza, ed è grazie alla ricchezza che alcune persone riescono ad avere l’opportunità di fare un lavoro più piacevole. 

Grazie alla Rivoluzione industriale, l’applicazione di nuove tecnologie alla produzione tessile, al ferro, all’acciaio e ai trasporti determinò per la prima volta nella storia un incremento costante dei livelli di produttività del lavoro. Dapprima in Gran Bretagna a metà del diciottesimo secolo, poi nell’Europa occidentale e in Nord America, uomini e donne abbandonarono i campi per riversarsi nelle città e soddisfare la crescente domanda di manodopera delle fabbriche.    

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