Industrial tools

تطور العمل

كمبريدج ــ في منتصف ديسمبر/كانون الأول، من المقرر أن تصدر منظمة الأمم المتحدة أحدث تقاريرها السنوية عن التنمية البشرية. ويركز تقرير هذا العام على طبيعة العمل: كيف تتحول الطريقة التي نكسب بها عيشنا بفِعل العولمة الاقتصادية، والتكنولوجيات الجديدة، والإبداعات في مجال التنظيم الاجتماعي. ولا ريب أن آفاق البلدان النامية بشكل خاص متباينة إلى حد كبير.

الواقع أن العمل أمر غير سار بالنسبة لأغلب الناس في أغلب الوقت. فتاريخيا، كان القيام بقدر كبير من العمل المضني هو الكيفية التي أصبحت بلها البلدان غنية. ومن خلال الثراء يتسنى لبعض الناس الحصول على الفرصة للقيام بعمل سار.

فبفضل الثورة الصناعية، قدمت التكنولوجيات الجديدة في المنسوجات القطنية، والحديد والصلب، والنقل مستويات متزايدة الارتفاع من إنتاجية العمل للمرة الأولى في التاريخ. وفي بريطانيا أولاً في منتصف القرن الثامن عشر، ثم في أوروبا الغربية وأميركا الشمالية، تدفق الرجال والنساء من المناطق الريفية إلى المدن لتلبية طلب المصانع المتزايد على العمل.

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