中国的工人抗议:众而不力?

中国官方愿意公布的上一个关于年度劳工抗议活动的数字是1999年的100000起。而据公安部2001年的一份内部报告披露,该数字自1997年以来“如疾风般增长”。这一年正值以“效率”为名施压让工厂解雇工人的中共十五大召开。虽然中国政府决意对媒体封锁一切可能引发骚动的消息—或至少轻描淡写地报道其规模和破坏性—但我们仍然能够从发生在1994至2004年间的200多次不同事件中收集到信息。这些事件只是在这期间实际发生而却未被报道的数千起事件的冰山一角。这些报道有的来自于香港的媒体,一小部分来自于中国的出版物,还有的来自于西方媒体。

这些报道反映了同一种普遍增强之中的模式:各级政府,不论是北京还是地方,一般而言都容忍由手持请愿书和标语的农民和工人参与的,声势和规模较小且非破坏性的游行和静坐。如果示威者们只是自发、无组织、地方性和无领袖的,政府对其态度则更为宽容。

政治精英层对于那些可能由持不同政见者发动的,带有明显暴力性质的,体现出某种组织性的,以扩大化相威胁的或造成交通主动脉堵塞的动乱则不那么包容了。的确,在中国大陆之外得以报道的少数事件往往都包含抗议者卧轨或阻塞城市主干道,攻击权力机关或与之发生冲突,拘留和逮捕等因素。

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