La révolution inachevée des femmes dans le monde arabe

FÈS – Bien que partout au Moyen-Orient les femmes aient participé activement aux manifestations du Printemps arabe dès la fin 2010, elles restent aujourd’hui des citoyennes de seconde classe, même là où les soulèvements populaires sont parvenus à renverser une dictature. Les gouvernements islamistes aujourd’hui au pouvoir  dans plusieurs pays semblent en effet encore plus déterminés que les tyrans qu’ils ont remplacés à exclure les femmes de la sphère politique.

Dans mes entrevues auprès des femmes de la région, je suis frappée par leur pessimisme général. Elles craignent de voir leurs droits disparaître. Elles constatent autour d’elles une véritable désintégration économique, qui menace de faire éclater de nouvelles violences. À mesure que s’érode le lien social, elles se sentent de plus en plus vulnérables. Je les ai plus d’une fois entendues exprimer l’opinion selon laquelle leur situation était plus favorable avant les révolutions.

Depuis la fin du Printemps arabe, la représentation féminine au sein des parlements et des gouvernements est inexistante, ou alors minime, et les militantes féminines craignent de voir les partis islamistes mettre en place des politiques réactionnaires discriminantes et fondées sur les sexes. En Égypte, par exemple, le Parti de la liberté et de la justice, qui domine le parlement, considère qu’une femme ne peut devenir président. Les Égyptiennes ont été massivement présentes dans les manifestations qui ont renversé en 2011 le régime de l’ancien président Hosni Moubarak, mais ont depuis été largement exclues de toutes les fonctions décisionnelles officielles.

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