Les femmes et la campagne présidentielle américaine

OLYMPIA,WASHINGTON – Même si Barack Obama et John McCain sont les deux candidats incontournables de cette élection présidentielle, la campagne a également été dominée par deux femmes de caractères très différents, Hillary Clinton et Sarah Palin. Nombre d’observateurs estiment que le vote féminin déterminera l’issue de l’élection. Et l’on peut donc se demander, pour paraphraser Sigmund Freud, « que veulent les femmes américaines ? »

Jusqu’aux années 1960, les femmes américaines soutenaient plus volontiers les Républicains. Un différend clivage entre les genres est apparu lors de l’élection de 1980 où les femmes ont donné leur préférence aux Démocrates. En 1996, le vote féminin en faveur de Bill Clinton s’élevait à 14 pour cent de plus que le vote masculin, et en 2000, les femmes ont voté à 12 pour cent de plus pour Al Gore que pour George W. Bush.

Mais depuis 1996, les préférences politiques se sont réparties également entre les genres. Les femmes qui retournent dans le giron républicain sont, selon une idée répandue, les « security moms » - les épouses et mères des banlieues qui s’inquiètent pour leur famille depuis les attentats du 11 septembre 2001. McCain a choisi Sarah Palin comme colistière pour tenter de se rallier leurs voix et celles des femmes déçues par l’éviction de Hillary Clinton.

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