La victoria con el opio en Afganistán

A pesar del considerable esfuerzo que ha realizado la comunidad internacional en Afganistán desde 2001 para eliminar a los talibanes y a al Qaeda, la insurgencia en el sur del país ha cobrado impulso vertiginosamente en los últimos meses. Nuestro estudio de campo muestra que no estamos ganando la campaña para obtener el apoyo del pueblo afgano –los talibanes sí. En efecto, los métodos de la comunidad internacional de combatir a la insurgencia y erradicar los cultivos de amapola han ayudado, de hecho, a que los insurgentes ganen poder.

Hasta ahora, la comunidad internacional ha llevado a cabo políticas de destrucción en lugar de la reconstrucción prometida. La agresiva política antinarcóticos de erradicación de cultivos encabezada por Estados Unidos no ha logrado obtener el apoyo de los afganos porque ha desatado una reacción en cadena de pobreza y violencia en la que los campesinos pobres, con sus únicos medios de subsistencia destruidos, no pueden alimentar a sus familias. Esto se ha agravado porque no se ha podido proporcionar siquiera la más mínima asistencia y ayuda para el desarrollo en las áreas más pobres del país.

Al mismo tiempo, se han destruido comunidades como resultado de las campañas de bombardeos que han acabado precisamente con los hogares que vinimos a proteger. Esto, aunado a cuatro años de sequías, ha obligado a familias enteras a dejar sus pueblos para irse a refugios improvisados internos.

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