赢得全球化受害者们的心

在大西洋的两岸,许多人都把经济全球化看作是对收入低于平均水平的人的威胁。根据德国马歇尔基金最近所作的一项民意调查显示,法国、德国和美国的大部分民众赞成维持现有的贸易壁垒,即便这样做会阻碍经济的增长。显然,由全球经济一体化所带来的巨大的净收益并不足以说服那些丢失工作以及其他许多认为受到威胁的人。

最近成立的欧洲全球化调整基金正是整个欧盟面对这一挑战所做出的回应。欧洲全球化调整基金每年最高可以投入5亿欧元来帮助欧盟成员国里因贸易导致失业的工人。但是让全球化的受害者分享全球化的利益在传统上被认为是应该由各国来做的事情。比如,创立欧洲全球化调整基金正是受到了肯尼迪政府在1962年所创立的美国职工调整补助的启发,后者完全是一个由国家实施的计划。那么欧盟的介入真的是有道理的吗?

建立欧洲全球化基金经济上的理由是贸易政策问题被拉到了欧洲层面,而欧盟成员国则保留阻碍决定的能力。考虑一下一个假定的例子。如果纺织品实现了完全的自由贸易,那么就会在瑞典,这个几乎没有任何纺织工业的国家,和葡萄牙,这个拥有大量纺织工业的国家,之间产生巨大的不对称的效果。瑞典显然会成为一个受益者,而葡萄牙却会遭受沉重的打击,因为大批的纺织工人会失业。

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