¿ Sobrevivirán los derechos humanos en África el último auge petrolero?

¿Quién dice que el África francófona no puede prosperar? La Comunidad Económica de los Estados del África Central (CEMAC por sus siglas en inglés), con seis países y aproximadamente 30 millones de personas está despegando. Guinea Ecuatorial y Chad, ahora las estrellas más brillantes de la CEMAC, han pasado del olvido a los primeros lugares entre los exportadores de petróleo. A ellos sumemos los dos exportadores tradicionales, el Congo y Camerún, y la zona de la CEMAC se presenta como un mercado cada vez más atractivo para los inversionistas extranjeros y las empresas locales. ¿Pero impondrá el  rápido desarrollo un costo excesivamente alto en términos de derechos humanos?

La talla económica de la región aumentó en el año 2003 con la llegada del oleoducto Chad-Camerún, un proyecto de 4.2 mil millones de dólares que se realizó con la mediación del Banco Mundial y que se espera aumente la exploración y producción en Chad y en sitios marinos en las costas de Guinea Ecuatorial, y que distribuya los beneficios más ampliamente. Por ejemplo, dado que el oleoducto cruza 890 kilómetros de su territorio, Camerún recibirá 540 millones de dólares anuales por concepto de derechos y regalías en los próximos 25 a 30 años.

Todo esto ha sido posible gracias a lo que se ha considerado, vistos los parámetros históricos, como un período excepcional de estabilidad política. El petróleo se descubrió en Doba, región del sur de Chad, en 1975 y hasta ahora se han perforado 300 pozos. Pero ninguna de las reservas se pudo explotar sino hasta 1988 cuando la larga guerra civil en Chad finalmente terminó.

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