Переживут ли права человека в Африке недавний нефтяной бум?

Кто сказал, что франкоязычная Африка не может процветать? Центральноафриканский экономический и валютный союз (Central African Economic and Monetary Union, CEMAC), включающий шесть стран с населением около 30 миллионов человек, «идет на взлет». Экваториальная Гвинея и Чад, ныне являющиеся лидерами в CEMAC, из ниоткуда поднялись до уровня ведущих экспортеров нефти. Добавьте к ним два представителя «старой гвардии», Конго и Камерун, и окажется, что зона CEMAC становится все более и более привлекательным рынком как для иностранных инвесторов, так и для местных фирм. Но не приведет ли быстрое развитие к ущемлению прав человека?

Экономическое положение региона укрепилось в 2003 году с появлением проекта строительства нефтепровода Чад-Камерун стоимостью 4,2 миллиарда долларов при посредничестве Всемирного банка. Ожидают, что этот нефтепровод стимулирует бурение новых скважин и производство нефти в Чаде и на оффшорных участках в Экваториальной Гвинее, но выгоды от него не ограничатся этим. Например, благодаря тому, что по территории Камеруна пройдет 890 километров трубопровода, эта страна будет получать 540 миллионов долларов чистой прибыли ежегодно в виде платы за услуги и арендных отчислений в течение последующих 25 – 30 лет.

Все это стало возможно благодаря тому, что на территории региона наступил, по историческим стандартам, исключительный период политической стабильности. Нефть была обнаружена в Доба, южной области Чада, еще в 1975 году, и до недавнего времени было пробурено 300 скважин. Но ни одно из месторождений нельзя было эксплуатировать до 1988, пока в Чаде, наконец, не окончилась затяжная гражданская война.

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