La révolution capitaliste de la Chine deviendra-t-elle démocratique ?

La Chine communiste a vécu une révolution capitaliste monumentale ces vingt dernières années, et son économie est aujourd’hui six fois supérieure à ce qu’elle était il y a 20 ans. Acteur mineur de l’économie mondiale dans les années 1980, le pays est aujourd’hui la troisième puissance commerciale mondiale. Pourtant, si ces étonnantes statistiques économiques vous font croire qu’une telle évolution capitaliste a eu pour conséquence une avancée de la démocratie en Chine, vous êtes loin du compte.

La plupart des occidentaux croient en une théorie d’évolution libérale, selon laquelle une croissance économique soutenue, en augmentant la richesse et la taille des classes moyennes, contribue à démocratiser progressivement un pays. Bien que sur le long terme cette théorie se soit avérée irréfutable, l’élite dominante et autoritaire de la Chine n’est pas seulement déterminée à s’accrocher au pouvoir, elle a aussi été assez intelligente pour prendre des mesures d’adaptation visant à contrer les effets de libéralisation du développement économique.

Ainsi, malgré ses impressionnants exploits économiques, les progrès de la Chine en termes de libéralisation politique sont remarquablement réduits. En effet, à en juger par plusieurs indicateurs clés, le progrès démocratique en Chine est au point mort, en dépit d’une prospérité économique et d’une liberté individuelle sans précédents.

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