La Chine, prochaine superpuissance mondiale ?

CAMBRIDGE – Il y a 30 ans, l'impact de la Chine sur l'économie mondiale était quasi inexistant, son influence hors de ses frontières minime, à l'exception de quelques pays avec lesquels elle entretenait des relations étroites sur le plan politique et militaire. A ujourd'hui c'est une grande puissance économique : l'usine du monde, son premier financier, un investisseur majeur à travers le monde, de l'Afrique à l'Amérique latine, et un acteur important en matière de recherche et développement.

Le gouvernement chinois est assis sur une masse colossale de réserves étrangères, plus de 2000 milliards de dollars ! Il n'est pas une seule entreprise, où que ce soit dans le monde, qui n'ait ressenti l'impact de la Chine - que ce soit au titre de fournisseur à bas prix, ou de manière plus menaçante, à titre de formidable concurrent.

La Chine est encore un pays pauvre. Même si le revenu moyen a augmenté rapidement au cours des dernières décennies, il ne représente qu'entre 1/7 et 1/8 de celui des Etats-Unis, il est inférieur à celui de la Turquie ou de la Colombie et guère plus élevé que celui du Salvador ou de l'Egypte. Si les régions côtières et les grandes métropoles paraissent incroyablement prospères, une grande partie de l'ouest du pays reste très pauvre. Néanmoins l'économie chinoise devrait surpasser en taille celle des USA au cours des 20 prochaines années.  

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