“总量管制和排放交易”(CAP-AND-TRADE)制度会引发贸易保护主义么?

剑桥——目前,关于“总量管制和排放交易”在国际间被广泛接受,很有可能引发新一轮的贸易保护主义。而且在近期乃至将来对经济造成非常不好的影响。“总量管制和排放交易”是为了限制二氧化碳的排放而制定的一项立法,目的是限制碳排放量对环境的长期危害。

科学证据表明:由于燃料化石(主要是煤,石油和天然气)——主要是用于发电,运输和各种工业化等——在空气中的大量燃烧,使得二氧化碳在大气层中的含量不断升高,迫使全球气候变暖,由此威胁到我们生活的环境。因此,今年12月,全球150多个国家的代表将在哥本哈根聚集,共同讨论如何减少二氧化碳的排放量问题。

如何解决这一难题呢?目前一种普遍的解决方案是对于二氧化碳的排放实施税收管制,也就是说针对那些由于生产环节而产生二氧化碳的企业,或是产品本身(例如汽油)的使用导致二氧化碳排放的企业增加税收。目的是使得电力公司和其他工业企业改进工艺,减少二氧化碳的排放,只要是税金的数额高于工业改造的成本,他们就会选择后者。

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