Incautos ante el riesgo

La mayoría de la gente no siente el mismo impulso de salir y comprar un seguro o diversificar sus inversiones que el que les lleva a comprar un sofá o ropa nueva. Deberían tenerlo, pero no es así. Históricamente, las instituciones bancarias, de seguros y de inversiones han tenido que luchar una batalla cuesta arriba para que las personas, empresas y gobiernos paguen por la administración de riesgos. Sus éxitos, si bien impresionantes, siguen siendo incompletos: la gente todavía tiene dificultades para enfrentar los riesgos y las dificultades inherentes a su futuro económico.

Esta es la razón por la cual casi todos los países avanzados tienen programas de salud y seguridad social. Por supuesto, la gente no desconoce realmente los grandes riesgos de la vida. Simplemente los pasamos por alto debido a causas enraizadas en la sicología humana.

El vínculo entre el reconocimiento intelectual de los riesgos y los ímpetus de actuar contra ellos está mediado por el miedo: hemos sido programados a lo largo de millones de años de evolución para tomar medidas decisivas contra amenazas inmediatas y obvias. Si se aproxima un animal en actitud amenazante, sentimos miedo y ansiedad. La adrenalina fluye, nuestra atención se concentra y surge nuestro instinto de proteger a nuestras amistades y familias.

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