Un pouvoir Wikifuyant

PARIS – Au-delà des gros titres, de l’embarras des gouvernements et du choc asséné au secret des correspondances diplomatiques, la révélation par WikiLeaks des câbles diplomatiques américains offre une illustration crue de la manière avec laquelle notre ère de l’information modifie profondément l’essence du pouvoir.

L’état est depuis sa création le principal vecteur du pouvoir ; accéder au pouvoir signifiait habituellement contrôler l’état, soit par le biais d’élections, soit par un brutal coup d’état. Ce modèle, dans le cadre duquel les individus sont des sujets, ou au mieux des contribuables et des électeurs, est menacé par diverses tendances récentes qui renforcent le pouvoir des individus.

Prenons l’exemple d’internet, un réseau de noyaux interconnectés inventé dans les années 60, au plus fort de la guerre froide, pour protéger les Etats-Unis du chaos total qui résulterait d’une attaque nucléaire sur ces centres névralgiques. Il a été délibérément conçu sans aucune hiérarchie, ni cour, ni autorité centralisée, même si peu nombreux étaient ceux qui, à l’époque, pouvaient imaginer, compte tenu des nombreuses avancées de la révolution numérique, où cette inclinaison implicite de l’internet vers un pouvoir décentralisé mènerait.

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