La battaglia per l’acqua

NEW YORK – La sempre più accesa competizione geopolitica e internazionale sulle risorse naturali ha reso alcune risorse strategiche delle potenziali cause di una lotta di potere. Le risorse idriche transnazionali sono diventate uno dei motivi principali di competizione e conflitto e stanno infatti innescando una serie di contese per la costruzione di dighe e sollecitando i numerosi appelli alle Nazioni Unite affinché riconoscano l’acqua come una delle principali questioni di sicurezza a cui dare priorità.

L’acqua è diversa dalle altre risorse naturali. Esistono, infatti, dei sostituti per diverse risorse, compreso il petrolio, ma non per l’acqua. I paesi possono importare carburanti fossili, minerali grezzi e risorse provenienti dalla biosfera come pesce e legname, ma non possono importare l’acqua che è generalmente una risorsa locale su larga scala o su base prolungata e sempre meno permanente. L’acqua è più pesante del petrolio, il che rende il suo trasporto per mare o per terra su grandi distanze molto costoso anche tramite le tubazioni (che richiederebbero delle pompe grandi e ad uso intensivo di energia).

Il paradosso dell’acqua è che pur essendo un elemento vitale, può anche provocare la morte come quando trasporta microbi letali o nel caso di tsunami, alluvioni improvvise, temporali o dei tornado. Molti dei più grandi disastri naturali del nostro tempo, compresa la catastrofe di Fukushima nel 2011, sono stati in qualche modo legati all’acqua.

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