Der Kampf um das Wasser

NEW YORK – Aufgrund des sich verschärfenden geopolitischen Wettbewerbs um natürliche Ressourcen entwickeln sich manche strategischen Ressourcen zu treibenden Kräften in Machtkämpfen. Grenzübergreifende Wasserressourcen stellen ein besonders starkes Motiv für Konkurrenz und Konflikt dar, was zu einem Wettrennen bei der Errichtung von Dämmen führt und die Vereinten Nationen veranlasst, vermehrt Forderungen nach Anerkennung des Wassers als wichtiges Sicherheitsproblem zu stellen.

Wasser unterscheidet sich von anderen natürlichen Ressourcen. Für zahlreiche Ressourcen findet sich Ersatz, für Wasser jedoch nicht. Ebenso können Länder fossile Brennstoffe, Erze und Ressourcen aus der Biosphäre wie Fisch und Holz importieren, doch Wasser, dessen Einsatz lokal begrenzt ist, kann nicht in großem Stil und über längere Zeiträume - geschweige denn dauerhaft – importiert werden. Wasser ist schwerer als Öl, wodurch sein Transport über große Entfernungen auch mittels Pipeline (die große, energieintensive Pumpen erfordert) höchst kostspielig wird.

Das Paradox des Wassers besteht darin, dass es Leben erhält, aber auch den Tod bringen kann, wenn es zum Träger tödlicher Mikroben wird oder in Form von Tsunamis, Sturzfluten oder heftigen Niederschlägen bei Gewittern und Wirbelstürmen auftritt. Viele der größten Naturkatastrophen unserer Zeit – einschließlich der Katastrophe von Fukushima im Jahr 2011 beispielweise – standen im Zusammenhang mit Wasser.

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