水之战争

纽约—自然资源的国际地缘政治竞争愈演愈烈,导致一些战略之源成了实力斗争的推动器。跨国水资源已成为特别活跃的竞争和冲突原因,引发了各国的建坝竞赛,越来越多的人呼吁联合国把水看做关键性安全问题。

水和其他自然资源不同。毕竟,许多资源都能找到替代品,包括石油,但水不行。类似地,国家可以进口化石燃料、矿石和其他诸如鱼和木材等生物资源;但国家不能进口水,从根本上说,水是大规模、长时间(尽管远非持久)的立国之本。水重于油,这决定了船运或长途输送(即使使用管道进行,而这又需要大型能源密集型水泵)成本极其高昂。

水的悖论之处在于,它能维持生命,但也可以造成死亡,如果它成为致命微生物携带者或以海啸、洪水、风暴或飓风形式来临的话。许多现时代最严重的自然灾害——包括2011年福岛灾难——都和水有关。

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