Un pacte commercial transatlantique ?

MADRID – Plus tôt ce mois-ci, le Conseil national du renseignement américain a publié un rapport qui donne à réfléchir : Tendances mondiales 2030 : des mondes alternatifs. D’après ses auteurs, si les tendances actuelles se maintiennent, l’Asie pourrait bientôt dépasser l’Amérique du Nord et l’Europe en termes de puissance mondiale. Elle aura un PIB  et des dépenses militaires plus élevés, une population plus importante et réalisera plus d’investissements dans les nouvelles technologies. Dans ce contexte géopolitique, les Etats-Unis et l’Europe auront plus que jamais besoin l’un de l’autre, soulignant l’importance vitale d’une plus grande coopération transatlantique.

Cette approche semble avoir inspiré la secrétaire d’État sortante Hillary Clinton lors d’un récent discours à la Brookings Institution sur les relations entre l’Europe et les Etats-Unis. Compte tenu du déplacement des centres de pouvoir et de la perspective d’une autosuffisance énergétique liée au boom de la production d’hydrocarbures, les Etats-Unis cherchent à adapter leur politique étrangère à ce nouvel ordre mondial multipolaire. Et même si l’Asie est aujourd’hui la priorité stratégique des Etats-Unis, l’Europe reste le partenaire avec lequel les Américains ont le plus de points en commun. « Je veux être claire » a souligné Clinton. « Notre réorientation vers l’Asie ne constitue pas un retrait de l’Europe ».

Les Etats-Unis, d’après Hillary Clinton, espèrent que l’UE donnera suite et qu’elle percevra non seulement l’Asie comme un marché, mais également comme la cible d’une action stratégique commune. Mais au-delà de ce point, la coopération entre les Etats-Unis et l’Europe est plus importante que jamais, au moment où les deux partenaires cherchent à définir leur rôle mondial. Il est temps d’envisager une initiative audacieuse : la négociation d’un accord de libre-échange entre l’Union européenne et les Etats-Unis.

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