中央银行应该把目标定在就业上吗?

华盛顿—12月12日,美联储主席伯南克宣布美联储将一直保持利率近零水平直至失业率降到6.5%,只要通胀预期保持可控。美联储的治理权限——与欧洲央行不同——明文规定包括支持就业的指令权,但伯南克的话是标志着美联储第一次将其利率政策与就业数字目标挂钩。这是一个值得欢迎的突破,应该被其他央行所效仿——不仅仅是欧洲央行。

中央银行的权限因它们为货币政策设定的目标的不同而不同。所有央行的目标都包括价格稳定。不少央行还加上了总体经济状况(包括增长和就业或是金融稳定)内容。一些国家给予央行单方面决定通胀目标的权力,一些国家则要求央行与政府合作设定这一目标。

但是,近年来从未有主要国家的央行设定就业数字目标。这应该发生改变,因为发达国家所面临的就业挑战规模日益显著。疲软的劳动力市场、低通胀和债务积压意味着需要将对各项任务来一次根本性重新排序。在日本,即将出任首相的安倍晋三也释放出同样的信号,尽管他准备为日本银行设定一个“最低”通胀目标,而不是与通胀或就业挂钩。

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