Paul Lachine

لماذا نستهدف البنوك الضخمة

لندن ـ في خضم الأزمة المالية بدا الأمر وكأن نموذجاً جديداً للحوكمة العالمية قد خرج من لهيبها إلى الوجود. ولكن الآن وبعد أن خمدت النيران وصار الرماد باردا، ظهرت وجهات نظر مختلفة فيما يتصل بتنظيم عمل البنوك على جانبي الأطلسي.

وكان التركيز في أوروبا منصباً على تنظيم الأسواق المالية بغية تخفيف حدة الأزمات في المستقبل. والحجة في هذا السياق هي أن الأخطاء الائتمانية التي ارتُكِبَت كانت أثناء فترة الازدهار وليس أثناء الأزمة. وهذا يعني أن التنظيم الأفضل وتبني السياسات النقدية السليمة أثناء سنوات الرواج من شأنه أن يحد من حجم أي انحدار في المستقبل.

وفي المقابل، كان التركيز في الولايات المتحدة منصباً على إيجاد طرق ملائمة للسوق لاحتواء الآثار غير المباشرة الناجمة عن فشل البنوك. وتنشغل عملية مناقشة السياسات في الولايات المتحدة أساساً بضمان عدم بلوغ البنوك أحجاماً تجعلها "أضخم من أن تُترك للفشل"؛ وبأن مستثمري القطاع الخاص وليس دافعي الضرائب هم الذين يحتفظون برؤوس أموال "معدة للاستخدام في الطوارئ"، والتي يمكن تحويلها في حالات الانهيار إلى أسهم عادية؛ وأن الوظيفة التي تؤديها أسواق "خارج المقصورة" من الممكن أن تتحسن من خلال الاعتماد بشكل أكبر على مركزية التداول، والمقاصة، والتسويات.

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