Reequilibrar el balance estatal

MILÁN – Hasta hace poco, se prestaba relativamente escasa atención a los balances estatales. Se descuidaban las mediciones y los informes. Incluso actualmente, la atención que reciben los pasivos estatales es considerable, mientras que el interés por el lado de los activos es significativamente menor.

En épocas anteriores, los estados poseían considerables activos industriales. Este modelo de «puestos de mando de la economía» fue rechazado en gran medida porque su desempeño resultó mucho peor al esperado, especialmente cuando los sectores propiedad del estado fueron protegidos contra la competencia (como era habitual). La eficiencia disminuyó. Pero, más importante aún, la ausencia de ingresos y salidas de empresas, un ingrediente clave para la innovación, llevó a que con el tiempo se perdiera dinamismo y aumentaran las pérdidas.

Las falencias del modelo condujeron a la privatización en muchos países desarrollados y en desarrollo. En Europa, la privatización fue vista como un paso clave en el proceso de integración. La teoría, en Europa y otras partes, fue que los estados no podían ser propietarios imparciales de activos industriales. Mediante la regulación, los concursos públicos y subsidios ocultos, favorecerían sus propios activos.

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