Risanare il bilancio dello Stato

MILANO – Fino a poco tempo fa, i bilanci patrimoniali degli Stati erano oggetto di scarsa considerazione, e la misurazione e il reporting erano aspetti perlopiù trascurati. Ancora oggi, le passività degli Stati sono al centro dell'attenzione, mentre le attività continuano a restare nell'ombra.

In un'epoca più lontana, gli Stati possedevano attività industriali in abbondanza. In seguito, questo modello basato sulle "leve fondamentali dell'economia" è stato rifiutato perché considerato poco efficace, soprattutto nel caso in cui i settori di proprietà dello Stato erano protetti dalla concorrenza (come di norma accadeva). A rimetterci era l'efficienza, ma l’aspetto più grave era che l'impossibilità di entrata e di uscita delle imprese - fondamentale per l'innovazione - influiva negativamente sul dinamismo e contribuiva all'aumento delle perdite nel corso del tempo.

Le carenze di questo modello hanno portato alla privatizzazione in molti Paesi sviluppati e in via di sviluppo. In Europa, in particolare, la privatizzazione era considerata come un passaggio fondamentale nel processo d'integrazione. L'idea, in Europa e altrove, era che gli Stati detentori di beni industriali non potessero essere imparziali, e che attraverso la regolamentazione, gli appalti pubblici e le sovvenzioni occulte avrebbero finito per favorire le proprie attività.

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