Die Staatsbilanz ausgleichen

MAILAND – Bis vor kurzem wurde den Bilanzen von Staaten relativ wenig Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt. Messung und Berichterstattung wurden vernachlässigt. Selbst heute erhalten die Verbindlichkeiten von Staaten beträchtliche Aufmerksamkeit, während ihre Aktiva erheblich weniger beachtet werden.

In früheren Zeiten besaßen Staaten große Industrievermögen. Dieses Modell der „Kommandohöhen der Wirtschaft“ wurde in erster Linie deshalb ausrangiert, weil es das Leistungspotenzial bei weitem nicht ausschöpfte, vor allem wenn staatseigene Sektoren vom Wettbewerb abgeschirmt wurden (was die Norm war). Die Effizienz nahm ab. Doch wichtiger war noch, dass durch die fehlende Gründung und Schließung von Firmen, ein Schlüsselfaktor für Innovation, die Dynamik litt und Verluste im Laufe der Zeit größer wurden.

Die Defizite des Modells führten in vielen Industrie- und Entwicklungsländern zu Privatisierungen. In Europa wurde die Privatisierung als wichtiger Schritt im Integrationsprozess angesehen. Die Theorie in Europa und anderswo war, dass Staaten keine unparteiischen Inhaber von Industrievermögen sein können. Durch Vorschriften, öffentliche Aufträge und versteckte Subventionen würden sie ihre eigenen Anlagen bevorzugen.

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