重新平衡国家资产负债表

发自米兰——直到最近,人们对世界各国资产负债表的关注一直都较少。对这些数据的测算和报告都被忽略了。而即使是在各国负债状况受到外界普遍关注的今天,其资产状况依旧鲜有人问津。

从前各国都拥有大量的工业资产。但这种“占据经济制高点”的模式由于其严重表现不佳而遭到了摈弃,尤其当国有企业在竞争中受到保护时(这已经成为常态)。效率因此降低。但更重要的是,缺少企业的进入或退出——这才是创新的关键组成部分——导致经济活力不足,其损失也随着时间的推移而不断增大。

这种模式的缺点导致很多发达及发展中国家进行私有化。在欧洲,私有化被看作是一体化进程的关键步骤。欧洲和其他地区的理念是国家不可能成为工业资产的无私持有者。借助相关法律法规、政府采购以及隐性津贴,政府会偏帮它们自己名下的资产。

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