L’importance de l’élection américaine pour le monde

NEW YORK – La plupart des personnes dans le monde ne pourront pas voter lors de la prochaine élection présidentielle aux Etats-Unis, même si leur sort dépend en grande mesure du résultat. La grande majorité des citoyens non-américains préfèreraient une réélection de Barack Obama par rapport à une victoire de son adversaire, Mitt Romney. Non sans bonnes raisons.

En ce qui concerne l'économie, les politiques de Romney, qui auront pour effet la création d'une société plus inégale et plus divisée, ne se feront pas directement sentir à l'étranger. Néanmoins, dans le passé, d'autres pays ont souvent suivi l'exemple de l'Amérique, pour le meilleur et pour le pire. De nombreux gouvernements ont rapidement souscrit au mantra de Ronald Reagan en faveur de la dérégulation des marchés – politiques qui ont fini par provoquer la pire récession mondiale depuis les années 1930. Les pays qui ont suivi le modèle de l'Amérique ont connu un accroissement des inégalités – plus d'argent au sommet, plus de pauvreté à la base et un affaiblissement de la classe moyenne.

Les politiques d'austérité proposées par Romney – une tentative de réduire les déficits prématurément, alors que l'économie américaine est encore fragile – auront pour conséquence pratiquement certaine d’affaiblir la croissance déjà anémique de l'Amérique et, si la crise de l'euro s’aggrave, pourraient provoquer une nouvelle récession. Dans ce cas, suite à la contraction de la demande américaine, le reste du monde ressentirait en fait assez directement les effets économiques d'une présidence Romney.

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