عازف بيانو بالفطرة؟

لندن ــ كتب رئيس تحرير صحيفة الجارديان، ألان روزبريدجر، كتاباً حول القرار الذي اتخذه بممارسة العزف على البيانو لمدة عشرين دقيقة يوميا، وكيف تمكن بعد ثمانية عشر شهراً من عزف البالاد البالغ الصعوبة رقم واحد في مقام جي ماينور للموسيقي العبقري شوبان أمام جمهور من الأصدقاء الذين أبدوا إعجابهم الشديد بعزفه. تُرى هل يستطيع أي شخص أن يحقق مثل هذا الإنجاز؟ أم أن الأمر يتطلب موهبة خاصة؟

كانت المناقشة حول الطبيعة في مقابل التربية والرعاية في دائرة الضوء لفترة طويلة. ولم تنته هذه المناقشة إلى حل لأن المسألة العلمية كانت دوماً متشابكة مع السياسة. فبشكل عام، ينتمي هؤلاء الذين يؤكدون على القدرة الفطرية إلى التيار السياسي المحافظ؛ أما أولئك الذين يؤكدون على أهمية التربية والرعاية فإنهم ينتمون إلى تيارات سياسية راديكالية.

كان فيلسوف القرن التاسع عشر جون ستيوارت مِل ينتمي إلى مدرسة "أي شخص يستطيع أن يفعل هذا". وكان على اقتناع تام بأن إنجازاته لم تكن بأي حال من الأحوال راجعة إلى مجموعة من الصفات الموروثة الخارقة: فأي شخص "يتمتع بذكاء عادي وصحة سليمة" ويخضع لمثل النظام التعليمي الذي فرضه عليه والده ــ والذي اشتمل على تعلم اللغة اليونانية في الثالثة من عمره ــ من الممكن أن يصبح جون ستيوارت مِل.

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