Dean Rohrer

Por qué tiene sentido un aumento de las migraciones

OXFORD – En casi todos los países ricos, el fervor contra los inmigrantes se ha transformado en fiebre. Pero es una enfermedad que es preciso resistir para que estas sociedades puedan seguir prosperando y para que los países en vías de desarrollo puedan luchar contra la pobreza y lograr un crecimiento económico sostenido.

Hay cuatro motivos por los que es deseable un mayor índice global de migraciones: es una fuente de innovación y de dinamismo; sirve de respuesta a la escasez de mano de obra; permite enfrentar el desafío que plantea el veloz envejecimiento de las poblaciones; y ofrece una forma de huir de la pobreza y las persecuciones. Por el contrario, poner límites a las migraciones supone un freno para el crecimiento económico y, a la larga, un deterioro de la competitividad de las sociedades. Además, es crear un mundo menos próspero, más desigual y dividido.

Por supuesto, un aumento de los índices migratorios conlleva en el corto plazo costos locales a los que es preciso hacer frente para que las sociedades puedan disfrutar de los beneficios a largo plazo, que son mucho mayores. Sin embargo, y a pesar de la oposición interna que enfrentan en los países de acogida, en los últimos 25 años las migraciones internacionales se han duplicado, y volverán a duplicarse hacia el año 2030. Los veloces cambios económicos y políticos (y cada vez más, los cambios medioambientales) expulsan a las personas de sus lugares de origen y las alientan a buscar oportunidades y seguridad en nuevos hogares.

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