意大利的法国诱惑

佛罗伦萨—意大利再一次受了错误希望的骗,认为只要能够“修正”其制度,其政治就会正常化。这一回,迷惑意大利领导人的是法国模式。

自2月份大选没有产生决定性结果以来,意大利立法者只在一个问题上形成了一致:88岁的纳波利塔诺再一次当选总统,成为自1946年意大利放弃君主制以来第一个连任的总统。支持纳波利塔诺的主流中左翼和中右翼政党希望,在他的监督下,意大利能形成获得广泛支持的联合政府。不过格里洛(Beppe Grillo)及其反对现状的五星运动党(Five Star Movement,该党赢得了议会选举的四分之一选票)反对纳波利塔诺。

但纠正意大利为数众多的制度弱点——它们导致意大利无从治理,地方各自为政,失败主义盛行,以及公众对现状的普遍沮丧感——要求改变该国的政治制度。法国曾以建立第五共和国的方式——其中包括强势总统领导下的稳健执政——克服了类似的弱点和政治僵局,因此法国模式似乎是可供遵循的善例。事实上,咋一看,意大利追求类似变化好像易如反掌。

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