Почему Франция в огне?

Городские беспорядки во Франции называют самыми серьезными со времен бунтов студентов и рабочих в 1968 году. Эта аналогия обманчива. В то время как протесты 1968 года выражали требование к французской республиканской модели – соответствовать ее самым возвышенным устремлениям, сегодняшний кризис бросает вызов модели гражданства, рожденной французской революцией, и самой интеграции как таковой.

Французская республиканская модель утверждает, что все граждане Франции принадлежат к одной и той же культуре. Действительно, это единственно приемлемый вариант. Чтобы эта культурная общность была реальностью, все граждане должны говорить на одном официальном языке и учиться по одной и той же программе. Но вместе с тем они пользуются равными правами и имеют одинаковые обязанности перед обществом.

Все это не только поощряется государством, но и требует такого единообразия, какое может обеспечить только централизованное государство. Действительно, идеологическая верность единству, порожденная французской революцией, была настолько сильна, что в девятнадцатом столетии выступление в защиту федерализма в отдельные времена каралось смертной казнью.

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