Чем объясняется китайский бум?

Провиденс, Род-Айленд – Китай отмечает 30-ую годовщину периода, официально известного как период "реформ и открытости". Такие официальные названия периодов времени перекликаются с имперской историей Китая. Император мог дать периоду политических преобразований, как, например, военных побед, особое «имя», чтобы отпраздновать хорошие вести. Или же двор мог переименовать определенный период после политического фиаско, пытаясь таким образом стереть неприятные воспоминания. Последний император династии Тан дал имена семи периодам времени в течение четырнадцати лет в тщетной попытке «переименовать» период свого правления и избежать падения своего режима.

Дэн Сяопин начал политику "реформ и открытости" в 1978 году. Под "реформами" подразумевалось ослабление централизованного контроля над экономической жизнью, проводимого в духе прагматизма и постепенности, как антидот идеологии "революции" Мао Цзэдуна. Точно также, под "открытостью" подразумевалась интеграция КНР в мировое сообщество, особенно капиталистический Запад. Принципы Дэна все еще определяют политику сегодня.

Для того, чтобы найти сопоставимый период последовательной политической и экономической стратегии, необходимо обратиться к правлению династии Цин (1644-1912) и 60-летней эпохе "небесного процветания" (цянь лун) в восемнадцатом веке.  Эпоха "реформ и открытости" пережила своего "императора" больше чем на десять лет и являлась общей нитью в процессе передачи политической власти от Дэна к Цзян Цзэминю и Ху Цзиньтао. Даже крупнейшая проблема, с которой когда-либо сталкивалась Коммунистическая партия Китая, а именно демонстрации 1989 года, в настоящее время выглядит как эпизод, который помог Дэну консолидировать поддержку своей модели развития.

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