Чем объясняется китайский бум?

Провиденс, Род-Айленд – Китай отмечает 30-ую годовщину периода, официально известного как период "реформ и открытости". Такие официальные названия периодов времени перекликаются с имперской историей Китая. Император мог дать периоду политических преобразований, как, например, военных побед, особое «имя», чтобы отпраздновать хорошие вести. Или же двор мог переименовать определенный период после политического фиаско, пытаясь таким образом стереть неприятные воспоминания. Последний император династии Тан дал имена семи периодам времени в течение четырнадцати лет в тщетной попытке «переименовать» период свого правления и избежать падения своего режима.

Дэн Сяопин начал политику "реформ и открытости" в 1978 году. Под "реформами" подразумевалось ослабление централизованного контроля над экономической жизнью, проводимого в духе прагматизма и постепенности, как антидот идеологии "революции" Мао Цзэдуна. Точно также, под "открытостью" подразумевалась интеграция КНР в мировое сообщество, особенно капиталистический Запад. Принципы Дэна все еще определяют политику сегодня.

Для того, чтобы найти сопоставимый период последовательной политической и экономической стратегии, необходимо обратиться к правлению династии Цин (1644-1912) и 60-летней эпохе "небесного процветания" (цянь лун) в восемнадцатом веке.  Эпоха "реформ и открытости" пережила своего "императора" больше чем на десять лет и являлась общей нитью в процессе передачи политической власти от Дэна к Цзян Цзэминю и Ху Цзиньтао. Даже крупнейшая проблема, с которой когда-либо сталкивалась Коммунистическая партия Китая, а именно демонстрации 1989 года, в настоящее время выглядит как эпизод, который помог Дэну консолидировать поддержку своей модели развития.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.


Log in

  1. Television sets showing a news report on Xi Jinping's speech Anthony Wallace/Getty Images

    Empowering China’s New Miracle Workers

    China’s success in the next five years will depend largely on how well the government manages the tensions underlying its complex agenda. In particular, China’s leaders will need to balance a muscular Communist Party, setting standards and protecting the public interest, with an empowered market, driving the economy into the future.

  2. United States Supreme Court Hisham Ibrahim/Getty Images

    The Sovereignty that Really Matters

    The preference of some countries to isolate themselves within their borders is anachronistic and self-defeating, but it would be a serious mistake for others, fearing contagion, to respond by imposing strict isolation. Even in states that have succumbed to reductionist discourses, much of the population has not.

  3.  The price of Euro and US dollars Daniel Leal Olivas/Getty Images

    Resurrecting Creditor Adjustment

    When the Bretton Woods Agreement was hashed out in 1944, it was agreed that countries with current-account deficits should be able to limit temporarily purchases of goods from countries running surpluses. In the ensuing 73 years, the so-called "scarce-currency clause" has been largely forgotten; but it may be time to bring it back.

  4. Leaders of the Russian Revolution in Red Square Keystone France/Getty Images

    Trump’s Republican Collaborators

    Republican leaders have a choice: they can either continue to collaborate with President Donald Trump, thereby courting disaster, or they can renounce him, finally putting their country’s democracy ahead of loyalty to their party tribe. They are hardly the first politicians to face such a decision.

  5. Angela Merkel, Theresa May and Emmanuel Macron John Thys/Getty Images

    How Money Could Unblock the Brexit Talks

    With talks on the UK's withdrawal from the EU stalled, negotiators should shift to the temporary “transition” Prime Minister Theresa May officially requested last month. Above all, the negotiators should focus immediately on the British budget contributions that will be required to make an orderly transition possible.

  6. Ksenia Sobchak Mladlen Antonov/Getty Images

    Is Vladimir Putin Losing His Grip?

    In recent decades, as President Vladimir Putin has entrenched his authority, Russia has seemed to be moving backward socially and economically. But while the Kremlin knows that it must reverse this trajectory, genuine reform would be incompatible with the kleptocratic character of Putin’s regime.

  7. Right-wing parties hold conference Thomas Lohnes/Getty Images

    Rage Against the Elites

    • With the advantage of hindsight, four recent books bring to bear diverse perspectives on the West’s current populist moment. 
    • Taken together, they help us to understand what that moment is and how it arrived, while reminding us that history is contingent, not inevitable

    Global Bookmark

    Distinguished thinkers review the world’s most important new books on politics, economics, and international affairs.

  8. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin Bill Clark/Getty Images

    Don’t Bank on Bankruptcy for Banks

    As a part of their efforts to roll back the 2010 Dodd-Frank Act, congressional Republicans have approved a measure that would have courts, rather than regulators, oversee megabank bankruptcies. It is now up to the Trump administration to decide if it wants to set the stage for a repeat of the Lehman Brothers collapse in 2008.