Wolfgang Schauble Wiktor Dabkowski/ZumaPress

Deutschland und seine Regeln

PRINCETON – Bei den Diskussionen um die Eurozone besteht die deutsche Seite gebetsmühlenhaft immer wieder darauf, wie wichtig es sei, die Regeln einzuhalten. Auf diesen Refrain antwortet der Chor der restlichen Mitglieder der Währungsunion, die sich fragen, warum Deutschland derart unnachgiebig ist. Die Antwort liegt sowohl in den Prozessen der politischen Entscheidungsfindung des deutschen Föderalismus, als auch in Deutschlands historischer Erfahrung mit Schuldenkrisen.

Deutschlands Obsession mit Regeln ist viel älter als die aktuelle Eurokrise. Die Politiker des Landes bestanden schon immer darauf, dass Europa erst eine gemeinsame Währung haben könne, wenn eine wirtschaftliche Einigung erzielt sei. Aber es sah so aus, als würde das niemals geschehen. Also pochte Deutschland bei Gründung der Eurozone in den 1990er Jahren auf die strenge Erfüllung der Konvergenzkriterien als Voraussetzung für die Einführung des Euro.

In allen anderen Ländern belächelten die Wirtschaftswissenschaftler die 'teutonische' Fixierung auf strenge Regeln. Es gibt zum Beispiel keinen Grund, warum eine Schuldenquote von 59 Prozent als sicher gilt, aber 62 Prozent als gefährlich und verantwortungslos. Aber die Deutschen bestanden darauf - und setzten sich schließlich durch.

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