Coin under flame.

Pourquoi la finance peut sauver la planète

PARIS – La plupart des gens détestent la finance, et la voient comme l’irresponsabilité et la cupidité incarnées. Pourtant, même après avoir provoqué une récession historique et mis des millions de personnes au chômage, la finance semble aujourd’hui indispensable pour prévenir une catastrophe plus grave encore : le changement climatique.

Il est urgent d’agir pour limiter le réchauffement climatique, mais la communauté internationale est désespérément à court d’outils. Peu de gens soutiennent les solutions les plus ambitieuses prônées par les économistes, comme un plafond global sur les émissions de GES, couplé avec un système d’échange de droits d’émission, ou encore l’application d’un prix du carbone dans le monde entier grâce à une taxe mondiale sur les émissions de CO2.

Au lieu de cela, les négociations préparant la Conférence des Nations Unies sur le climat à Paris en décembre sont menées sur la base de promesses unilatérales volontaires, appelées Intended Nationally Determined Contributions. L’approche par les objectifs volontaires a eu le mérite de créer une dynamique mondiale qui pourrait faire de la conférence de Paris un succès. Il est cependant peu probable que cette méthode aboutisse, à elle seule, à des engagements qui soient à la fois contraignants et proportionnés au défi.

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