El giro asiático de Europa

CAMBRIDGE/ÓXFORD – El llamado “giro hacia Asia” del gobierno de Obama es el más importante cambio estratégico que han emprendido los Estados Unidos desde el fin de la Guerra Fría y tiene consecuencias profundas para Europa, pero los dirigentes de ésta han pasado por alto en gran medida o han entendido mal su importancia, con lo que han desaprovechado la oportunidad que representa.

Por ejemplo, algunos en Europa creen que el interés de los Estados Unidos por Asia es algo reciente, pero, como dijo el Presidente Obama en 2011, “los Estados Unidos han sido y siempre serán una nación del Pacífico.” El cambio va encaminado a velar por que los EE.UU. desempeñen “un papel mayor y a largo plazo en la evolución de esa región”, donde lleva mucho tiempo manteniendo la estabilidad y contribuyendo a un crecimiento económico sin precedentes. En vista de ello, se debe ver ese giro de los Estados Unidos más como una consolidación de las políticas establecidas que como un cambio abrupto y a corto plazo.

También se ha entendido mal en gran medida el alcance de esa política. Si bien forma parte de ella una reequilibración de la posición militar de los EE.UU. en Asia –en 2020, la Armada de los EE.UU. desplegará más fuerzas, incluidos seis de sus once grupos de portaaviones, en el oceáno Pacífico–, abarca todo el espectro de la diplomacia, la economía, el desarrollo, la cultura y las relaciones entre sociedades.

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