Le pivot vers l'Asie de l'Europe

CAMBRIDGE/OXFORD – Ce que l'on appelle le « pivot vers l'Asie » de l'administration Obama est le plus important changement stratégique entrepris par les États-Unis depuis la fin de la Guerre froide : il a de nombreuses implications pour l'Europe. Mais les dirigeants de l'Europe ont en grande partie ignoré ou mal compris sa signification et n'ont donc pas saisi l'occasion qu'il représente.

Par exemple, certains en Europe croient que l'intérêt de l'Amérique pour l'Asie est un phénomène récent. Mais comme l'a dit le président Barack Obama en 2011 : « Les États-Unis sont et seront toujours une nation pacifique. » Le changement vise à s'assurer que les États-Unis jouent « un rôle plus grand et à long terme dans la formation de cette région, » où ils ont longtemps aidé à maintenir la stabilité et contribué à une croissance économique sans précédent. Ceci étant donné, le pivot de l'Amérique devrait être considéré davantage comme une consolidation des mesures établies que comme un changement brusque et à court terme.

Il existe aussi également un malentendu très répandu quant à la portée des mesures. Tandis que les mesures comprennent un rééquilibrage du maintien militaire des États-Unis en Asie (d'ici 2020, l'US Navy va déployer davantage de troupes, dont 6 sur ses 11 groupes de porteurs, sur l'Océan Pacifique) elles couvrent tous les aspects de la diplomatie, des sciences économiques, du développement, de la culture et des relations sociales.

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