Modelo social de Europa frente a integración europea

BRUSELAS – En las reuniones de alto nivel de la minoría dirigente de la Unión Europea, se oye con frecuencia el siguiente tipo de declaración: “Europa debe integrar y centralizar la gobernación económica para defender su modelo social en una era de mundialización”. El Presidente de la Comisión Europea, José Manuel Barroso, y su homólogo del Consejo Europeo, Herman van Rompuy, gustan en particular de este argumento.

Pero la tesis de que sólo una integración más profunda de la UE puede salvar el modelo social “europeo” de la acometida de los mercados en ascenso no es cierta. Sí, la mundialización representa una amenaza para todos los Estados miembros de la UE, pero no está claro cómo los ayudaría a afrontarlo una mayor integración. Una mayor gobernación económica europea no es una panacea.

En realidad, ni siquiera está claro qué modelo social europeo hay que salvar. Hay diferencias enormes entre los miembros de la UE desde el punto de vista del tamaño de sus sectores públicos, la flexibilidad de sus mercados laborales y casi cualquier indicador socioeconómico que podamos imaginar. Los elementos comunes que se suelen identificar con el modelo social “europeo” son la aspiración a la igualdad y un potente Estado del bienestar.

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