Por qué la ayuda para el desarrollo no basta

OSLO - La pobreza no es sólo no tener suficiente dinero. Tiene que ver también con la explotación y la opresión, y con los conflictos armados y las guerras que hacen imposible llevar un negocio, visitar al médico o enviar a los hijos a la escuela. En resumen, la pobreza es un problema político y tiene directa relación con la necesidad de idear soluciones políticas a sus causas subyacentes, lo que implica más que dar dinero.

El mundo ha cambiado mucho desde 2000, cuando la comunidad internacional adoptó la Declaración del Milenio y los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (ODM). Se ha producido un importante cambio de orden geopolítico, en que países que anteriormente eran considerados lo suficientemente pobres para recibir ayuda se han transformado en mercados emergentes que dan impulso a la economía mundial. El poder también ha cambiado en el escenario político global, en que la crisis financiera mundial ha catalizado el surgimiento del G-20.

Si la lucha contra la pobreza se ha de basar en nuestro camino de crecimiento tradicional con altas emisiones de gases de carbono, las consecuencias climáticas serán devastadoras, incluso si las partes más ricas del mundo se deshicieran de todas las emisiones actuales. El resultado serían inundaciones, sequías, una marcada baja en la producción de alimentos, y una gran pérdida de nuestra preciosa biodiversidad. Todo esto, obviamente, llevaría a un aumento dramático de la pobreza en todo el mundo pero, como siempre, los países más pobres serían los más afectados.

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