Paul Lachine

Die Mitte trägt nicht

WASHINGTON – In den meisten hochentwickelten Demokratien konkurriert eine große gemäßigte Rechtspartei mit einer großen gemäßigten Linkspartei. Natürlich beeinflusst das Maß, in dem ein Wahlsystem große Parteien begünstigt – sei es durch hohe Mindestanforderungen an die Zahl der von einer Partei erhaltenen Stimmen oder durch ein Mehrheitswahlrecht – den Grad politischer Zersplitterung. Doch im Großen und Ganzen sind die hochentwickelten Demokratien durch den Konkurrenzkampf großer Volksparteien des linken und rechten Spektrums gekennzeichnet. Was also sollen echte Politiker der Mitte – wie Mario Monti, Italiens weithin anerkannter technokratischer Ministerpräsident – tun?

Sicher spielen in bestimmten Gegenden Europas – Schottland, Belgien und Katalonien etwa – regionale und ethnische Bündnisse eine größere Rolle, und in den Schwellenländern, wo die politischen Trennlinien zugleich besondere postkoloniale Umstände und häufig das Erbe einer Einparteienherrschaft widerspiegeln, ist dies noch viel stärker der Fall. Trotzdem spielt selbst in den Demokratien von „Schwellenmärkten“ wie Chile, Mexiko, Südkorea und Indien eine Spaltung in Links und Rechts eine wichtige Rolle, während jene, die die politische Mitte besetzen, im Allgemeinen schwach bleiben.

Die britischen Liberaldemokraten etwa versuchen seit Jahrzehnten erfolglos, eine starke Partei der Mitte zu werden. Und während die politische Terminologie in den USA sich von der anderswo unterscheidet, ist die demokratische Partei seit der Präsidentschaft Franklin D. Roosevelts ganz klar eine gemäßigt linke Partei, die Republikaner besetzen das rechte Spektrum, und andere wichtige Parteien gibt es nicht.

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