Paul Lachine

中间道路不可行

华盛顿—在大部分发达民主国家,都是一个中右翼大党和一个中左翼大党在竞争。当然,选举制度有利于大党的程度——通过议会普选高门槛,或通过选区赢者通吃制——影响着政治碎片化的程度。但是,总的来说,发达民主国家的特征是中左翼大党和中右翼大党竞争。那么,像意大利广受尊进的技术官僚型总理蒙蒂这样的真正中间派能做些什么呢?

诚然,宗教和血统忠诚度在欧洲某些地方(如苏格兰、比利时和加泰罗尼亚)具有极重要的作用,但这些因素在新兴国家更加重要,那里的政治分裂局面也反映了各自的后殖民时代环境,并且通常属于一党执政的遗留问题。尽管如此,即使是智利、墨西哥、韩国和印度这样的“新兴市场”民主国家,左右对立也扮演着重要角色,而宣布走中间道路的政客往往结果不佳。

比如,英国自由民主党几十年来都在寻求成为强大的中间派第三大当,但从未成功。尽管美国的政治观念有所不同,但民主党自富兰克林·罗斯福以来便是事实上的中左派,而共和党代表右翼,此外再无第三个主要党派出现。

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